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What is Rift valley fever?

Rift valley fever What is Rift valley fever

What is Rift valley fever, Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that infects animals and can transmit to humans, to learn more about this disease, read this article.


What is Rift Valley Fever?

It is a viral disease that causes fever, and it spreads widely among ruminants, such as sheep, goats, camels, and cows.


This disease was discovered in the Rift Valley region of Kenya on a sheep and livestock farm, and after that, it began to spread, which explained the reason for the name. This virus infects animals with severe illness and fever.


What are the ways it is transmitted to humans?

The RVF virus is transmitted by direct or indirect contact with the blood, fluids, or body parts of an infected animal.


It can also be transmitted by a vector, and this vector may be a mosquito of the genus of yellow fever (Aedes or Culex) or bloodsucking flies.


Among the methods of transmission of this virus to humans:

  • Births or abortions of infected animal fetuses; The virus can be transmitted by contact with tissues or blood during these processes.
  • Touching an infected animal when disposing of infected animal carcasses.
  • Vaccination of an infected animal, when bleeding occurs in the areas where the needle is inserted, or when touching a contaminated needle.
  • Slaughtering and dismembering an injured animal, a butcher can cut himself with a knife contaminated with the animal's blood.
  • Veterinary procedures.
  • Some studies indicated that drinking unboiled and unpasteurized milk from infected animals contributes to the transmission of the disease to humans.
  • No case has yet been established in which the virus has been transmitted between humans.


What are the symptoms of Rift Valley Fever?

Usually, a person infected with this virus has no or mild symptoms, including fever and disturbances in liver function. Among these symptoms:

  1. General weakness.
  2. Fever.
  3. Backache.
  4. Significant weight loss early in the disease.
  5. Feeling dizzy.
  6. In general, the patient recovers and the symptoms disappear two days to a week after the onset of symptoms.


Complications of Rift Valley Fever

8-10% of infected people may suffer from more severe symptoms and complications, including the following:


Hemorrhagic fever

Hemorrhagic fever occurs in less than 1% and leads to shock, jaundice, and bleeding from the gums, skin, and nose.


The death rate is up to 50% for those who develop hemorrhagic fever.


Brain inflammation

Encephalitis affects less than 1% of people with RVF.


It leads to headaches, coma, or seizures.


Eye problems

They appear one to three weeks after the onset of symptoms.


It causes blurring and decreased vision, and eye problems usually disappear after 10 to 12 weeks.


However, 50% of people with eye problems due to RVF end up with the complete loss of vision.


What are the methods of treating Rift Valley Fever?

Because most human infections are mild and heal on their own, no special treatment has been produced for this disease.


In severe and rare cases of this disease, they receive supportive treatments to treat and relieve complications and symptoms.

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