Foot and mouth disease, "foot and mouth disease" is considered one of the diseases that threaten livestock and cause heavy losses in any country if it spreads. The Ministry of Agriculture seeks to confront and eliminate this disease through vaccination campaigns against epidemics and transient diseases in light of the state's tendency to advance the agricultural sector and wealth. And provide safe food for citizens.
Foot and mouth disease
Foot-and-mouth disease is a fast-spreading viral disease that affects cleft hoofed animals such as cows, sheep, goats, pigs, and deer. The severity of disease symptoms varies depending on the type of virus causing it.
Causes of FMD spread
The virus that causes foot and mouth disease is present in all secretions and fluids of the sick animal and in milk and semen 4 days before the appearance of clinical symptoms, and it is considered and the nose the main sources of infection, and the infection is transmitted by one of the direct or indirect methods, namely:
- Disease animal contact with materials contaminated with the virus.
- Animals carrying the virus that have been cured of the disease so that the virus remains in the throat for a long period of time.
- Inhalation of the virus excreted with saliva, contaminated milk, animal excreta, and urine.
- Through dead animals, as they continue to carry the virus and thus constitute a source of infection for a long time.
- It is transmitted by different means of transport, breeding tools, and feed bags.
- It is transmitted through polluted air, which can transmit the infection up to 60 km by land and 300 km by sea.
- The legs of contaminated animals that you put in the mud.
Symptoms of foot and mouth disease
- The virus forms a primary water bubble within 24 to 48 hours at the place it entered the body.
- Then the temperature of the infected animal rises for a period ranging between 24 and 36 hours, and during this period the animal is highly contagious, as the virus is excreted in saliva, milk, and feces.
- The lips of the affected animal are swollen, and saliva drools heavily from the mouth of the affected animal, reaching the ground in the form of long silver lines.
- The bubbles then spread into the mouth, pharynx, and gums, and usually burst and leave painful sores that are inflamed, to the point that they prevent the animal from eating food, and cause a loss of appetite.
- The same bubbles appear on the feet, which ulcerate and become inflamed, and the vesicles appear between the toes, which causes the animals affected by this disease to have difficulty walking and movement and causes lameness in the legs.
Treatment of foot and mouth disease
- Immunization is a preventive way to prevent the emergence of this disease as you acquire immunity to the disease.
- Fever reducers are injected.
- Rinse the mouth with a solution of 1% alum or 5% boric acid and anoint it with boric ointment with potassium chlorate in a ratio of 10: 1 to treat ulcers, or rinse the mouth with 5% vinegar water three times a day.
- Paint the udder with Aktiol with glycerin in a 1: 1 ratio or zinc ointment.
- Cleaning and disinfecting foot sores with a 10% copper sulfate solution several times a day, then applying tar or oil.
- Giving a soft, easy-to-digest diet.
- Treatment in this disease depends on preventing the occurrence of secondary infection. The animal is given antibiotics and local treatment is continued according to the location of the lesion.
- The covers are washed with soap and water, then with a solution of carnosine, then applied with zinc oxide ointment, caroline with copper sulfate, and the ends should be wrapped with a bandage and anointed with tar.
- The udder is also washed with lukewarm water and soap, then with 4% boric acid.
- Isolating infected cases in a remote location and preventing them from mixing with infected animals, and the personnel assigned to care for them are not transferred to the pens of healthy animals.
- Cutting dirt floors and sanitary disposal of infected animal remains and debris by disinfection, burning, and burial.