Diseases exposed to poultry, poultry are exposed to many infectious and deadly diseases during their lifetime, and the danger of poultry diseases lies in their sudden occurrence, rapid spread, and difficulty controlling them, especially viral diseases.
The diseases that affect poultry are divided according to their causes into the following:
1- viral diseases:
- Newcastle disease
- Infectious bronchitis.
- Gymboree disease.
2- Bacterial diseases, the most important of which are the following:
- Infection with salmonella microbes.
- Chronic respiratory disease.
- Bird cholera.
- Infectious cold.
3 - Parasitic diseases, the most important of which are:
- Coccidiosis disease
- Roundworm infestation.
- Tapeworm infection.
- Infection with external insects such as lice, ticks, and mites (causing scabies).
4- Fungal diseases, the most important of which are the following:
- Catfish disease
- Fungal poisoning.
5- Diseases arising from malnutrition, the most important of which are the following:
- Lack of vitamins A, E, K, and B complex.
- Lack of mineral salts, such as deficiency of calcium, phosphorous, zinc and manganese.
Viral diseases, the most important and the most dangerous of which is Newcastle disease
It is a rapidly spreading disease and is considered one of the most dangerous diseases that afflict chickens of all ages, and in addition, it affects turkeys, pigeons, and many types of wild birds and ornamental birds, infection occurs by inhaling air or eating feed or drinking water contaminated with the disease virus.
The infection spreads through the close proximity of sick or infected birds with healthy birds, or by using tools or feed contaminated with the secretions of sick birds.
Symptoms of the disease
It is summarized in the occurrence of lethargy, swollen feathers, lack of tendency to eat, congestion in the mane, and diarrhea that tends to darken in color, accompanied by the appearance of mucous secretions from the nose and eyes, and difficulty in breathing.
In laying hens, when the disease occurs, a sudden and severe decrease in the production of eggs is seen, and the eggs of affected birds are characterized by being small in size, curvy, or with a fragile shell that is easy to break and sometimes without shell at all.
Actions to be taken when the disease occurs:
- Immediate vaccination of apparently healthy birds, using one of the Newcastle vaccines.
- Slaughtering sick birds and disposing of their carcasses and the carcasses of dead birds either by burning or by burial in deep pits.
- Cleaning and complete disinfection of the affected housing and all the tools used.
Measures to be taken to protect birds from disease:
- Wash and disinfect bird pens before starting the breeding.
- Not to raise different ages of chickens or different types of birds in the same place.
- Take into account not to enter mice or birds into the chicken coops.
- Take into account not to crowd birds inside the housing.
- Pay attention to good ventilation and provide integrated feed.
- Periodic vaccination of chickens, starting from the first week of life and at the age of 3 weeks, then every 2-3 months after that with different Newcastle vaccinations.